Reconstruction of Human Evolutionary Tree Using Polymorphic Autosomal Microsatellites
ABSTRACT Allelic frequencies of 182 tri- and tetraautosomal microsatellites were used to examine phylogenetic relationships among 19 extant human populations. In particular, because the languages of the Basques and Hunza Burusho have been suggested to have an ancient relationship, this study sought to explore the genetic relationship between these two major language isolate populations and to compare them with other human populations. The work presented here shows that the microsatellite allelic diversity and the number of unique alleles were highest in sub-Saharan Africans. Neighbor joining trees based on genetic distances and principal component analyses separated populations from different continents, and are consistent with an African origin for modern humans. For the first time, with biparentally transmitted markers, the microsatellite tree also shows that the San are the first branch of the human tree before
the branch leading to all other Africans. In contrast to an earlier study, these results provided no evidence of a genetic relationship among the two language isolate groups. Genetic relationships, as ascertained by these microsatellites, are dictated primarily by geographic proximity rather than by remote linguistic origin.
Fig. 3. Principal components (PC) analyses based on allele frequencies of 182 microsatellite markers in 19 worldwide human populations. A: Two-dimensional plot of PC1 vs. PC2, including chimpanzee samples. Bidimensional plots of PC1 vs. PC2 (B), PC1 vs. PC3 (C), and PC2 vs. PC3 (D), excluding chimpanzee samples.
You’ll need to enlarge this one to read it.
As can be seen from this analysis of multiple loci (182 to be precise) Greeks are neatly placed in with the rest of Europe, effectively contradicting the dumbass ‘study’ by a Macedonian from a few years ago that tried to claim they were all originally from Ethiopia and not closely related to other Europeans.
This paper supports the out of Africa theory, and I have a quibble with it. The number of unique alleles in Africa is 125, but in the rest of the world is 268, showing more unique DNA ‘out of Africa’ than in it. This would seem to contradict the OOA theory somewhat. I mean, Europe has had a much smaller human occupation period than Africa, and smaller population, but the ‘unique allele’ number is only about half of Africa’s (125 v 59). Bearing in mind that humans have been in Africa in the the longest and probably had the largest modern human population for most of our evolution, … there should be a lot more difference between the two. A lot of ‘unique alleles’ seem to appear in too short a time in the non-African population.