Y-chromosome 10 locus short tandem repeat haplotypes in a population sample from Sicily Italy
Maria Elena Ghiania, Ignazio Stefano Pirasa, Robert John Mitchellb, Giuseppe Vonaa,*
This study reports the first data on Y-chromosome-specific short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype frequencies, in the population of the island of Sicily (Italy), based on the combination of alleles at the following 10 Y-chromosome loci DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, and DYS439. In a total of 117 males, 108 unique haplotypes were observed, with 99 of them being singletons. The 10 locus haplotypes generated a diversity value of 0.9987 and discriminatory power (DP) of 92.30%. The data on the seven of the 10 polymorphisms (DYS19; DYS389I; DYS389II; DYS390; DYS391; DYS392 and DYS393) that have been most studied in worldwide populations were compared with similar data from neighboring Mediterranean populations in order to address the question of shared ancestry, gene flow and population affinities. Overall, results indicate Sicily is closest genetically to the mainland Italian population but also with evidence of a significant African component in the male gene pool. These findings are consistent with those obtained from other genetic markers (autosomal and mitochondrial DNA as well as the classical blood groups) and also with the recorded settlement history (either peaceful or due to invasion) of the island.
What this abstract fails to mention is that the African Y chromsomes are North African, and attributable to the Moorish occupation, and are at a frequency of about 5%.
Furthermore, these five haplotypes are not present in any other Italian population [20–23]. The shared five haplotypes represent 5% of the total Sicilian haplotypes. These African haplotypes most probably were introduced into Sicily sometime between the 7th and 8th century, during the island’s domination by the Arab Empire. An African contribution to the Sicilian gene pool gains support from several lines of evidence.
The median joining network used to arrange the Sicilian haplotypes into a phylogeny shows that there are two main clusters. The sharing of haplotypes between North West African and Sicilian populations confirms the contribution from the former population to the island during the Islamic expansion into the Mediterranean basin.
Another Y chromsome study of Sicily found North African DNA at six percent, which is very close.