Macrohaplogroup M in Asia, one clade estmated at over 84,000 years old.

This MtDNA Macrohaplogroup was recently nailed down to an Asian origin.

In situ origin of deep rooting lineages of mitochondrial Macrohaplogroup ‘M’ in India
Kumarasamy Thangaraj* 1 , Gyaneshwer Chaubey* 1,2 , Vijay Kumar Singh1 , Ayyasamy Vanniarajan1 , Ismail Thanseem1 , Alla G Reddy1  and Lalji Singh1

© 2006 Thangaraj et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Macrohaplogroups ‘M’ and ‘N’ have evolved almost in parallel from a founder haplogroup L3. Macrohaplogroup N in India has already been defined in previous studies and recently the macrohaplogroup M among the Indian populations has been characterized. In this study, we attempted to reconstruct and re-evaluate the phylogeny of Macrohaplogroup M, which harbors more than 60% of the Indian mtDNA lineage, and to shed light on the origin of its deep rooting haplogroups.

Results
Using 11 whole mtDNA and 2231 partial coding sequence of Indian M lineage selected from 8670 HVS1 sequences across India, we have reconstructed the tree including Andamanese-specific lineage M31 and calculated the time depth of all the nodes. We defined one novel haplogroup M41, and revised the classification of haplogroups M3, M18, and M31.

Conclusion
Our result indicates that the Indian mtDNA pool consists of several deep rooting lineages of macrohaplogroup ‘M’ suggesting in-situ origin of these haplogroups in South Asia, most likely in the India. These deep rooting lineages are not language specific and spread over all the language groups in India. Moreover, our reanalysis of the Andamanese-specific lineage M31 suggests population specific two clear-cut subclades (M31a1 and M31a2). Onge and Jarwa share M31a1 branch while M31a2 clade is present in only Great Andamanese individuals. Overall our study supported the one wave, rapid dispersal theory of modern humans along the Asian coast

The dazzling array of basal branches in the mtDNA macrohaplogroup M from India as inferred from complete genomes.

Sun C, Kong QP, Palanichamy MG, Agrawal S, Bandelt HJ, Yao YG, Khan F, Zhu CL, Chaudhuri TK, Zhang YP.
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, and Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Many efforts based on complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes have been made to depict the global mtDNA landscape, but the phylogeny of Indian macrohaplogroup M has not yet been resolved in detail. To fill this lacuna, we took the same strategy as in our recent analysis of Indian mtDNA macrohaplogroup N and selected 56 mtDNAs from over 1,200 samples across India for complete sequencing, with the intention to cover all Indian autochthonous M lineages. As a result, the phylogenetic status of previously identified haplogroups based on control-region and/or partial coding-region information, such as M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M30, and M33, was solidified or redefined here. Moreover, seven novel basal M haplogroups (viz., M34-M40) were identified, and yet another five singular branches of the M phylogeny were discovered in the present study. The comparison of matrilineal components among India, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania at the deepest level yielded a star-like and nonoverlapping pattern, reflecting a rapid mode of modern human dispersal along the Asian coast after the initial “out-of-Africa” event.

Ancient mitochondrial M haplogroups identified in the Southwest Pacific
D. Andrew Merriwether†,‡, Jason A. Hodgson†, Françoise R. Friedlaender§, Robin Allaby†, Salvatore Cerchio†, George Koki¶, and Jonathan S. Friedlaender§
(received for review June 6, 2005)

Abstract
Based on whole mtDNA sequencing of 14 samples from Northern Island Melanesia, we characterize three formerly unresolved branches of macrohaplogroup M that we call haplogroups M27, M28, and M29. Our 1,399 mtDNA control region sequences and a literature search indicate these haplogroups have extremely limited geographical distributions. Their coding region variation suggests diversification times older than the estimated date for the initial settlement of Northern Island Melanesia. This finding indicates that they were among the earliest mtDNA variants to appear in these islands or in the ancient continent of Sahul. These haplogroups from Northern Island Melanesia extend the existing schema for macrohaplogroup M, with many independent branches distributed across Asia, East Africa, Australia, and Near Oceania

This gives the founder dates for one of these M (M27) variants as ~84,000 years old. Which asks the question how can the MRCA of all M be less than about 90,000 years plus-suggesting that the current est. date for M in South Asia at about 74,000 might be a wee bit too young. This would push the exit date from Africa back quite a long way, if it’s accurate.

The overall (average) age of M had been estimated with the Saillard and Mishmar approach at 64,800 years with a standard error of 7,100 years, taken to conform to proposed dates for a “Southern Route” expansion between 55,000 and 85,000 YBP (39). With our data, the combined estimate for Near Oceanic Ms becomes 72,100 ± 8,000, with the estimate for the M27 branch, taken alone, as 84,400 ± 14,300 years (Table 3). Our calculation for the Australian Aboriginal M42 haplogroup age estimate is in the same range. Link

 

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