Y-chromosomes in Anatolia

Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Analysis of 89 biallelic polymorphisms in 523 Turkish Y chromosomes revealed 52 distinct haplotypes with considerable haplogroup substructure, as exemplified by their respective levels of accumulated diversity at ten short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The major components (haplogroups E3b, G, J, I, L, N, K2, and R1; 94.1%) are shared with European and neighboring Near Eastern populations and contrast with only a minor share of haplogroups related to Central Asian (C, Q and O; 3.4%), Indian (H, R2; 1.5%) and African (A, E3*, E3a; 1%) affinity. The expansion times for 20 haplogroup assemblages  was estimated from associated STR diversity. This comprehensive characterization of Y-chromosome heritage addresses many multifaceted aspects of Anatolian prehistory, including: (1) the most frequent haplogroup, J, splits into two sub-clades, one of which (J2) shows decreasing variances with increasing latitude, compatible with a northward expansion; (2) haplogroups G1 and L show affinities with south Caucasus populations in their geographic distribution as well as STR motifs; (3) frequency of haplogroup I, which originated in Europe, declines with increasing longitude, indicating gene flow arriving from Europe; (4) conversely, haplogroup G2 radiates towards Europe; (5) haplogroup E3b3 displays a latitudinal correlation with decreasing frequency northward; (6) haplogroup R1b3 emanates from Turkey towards Southeast Europe and Caucasia and; (7) high resolution SNP analysis provides evidence of a detectable yet weak signal (<9%) of recent paternal gene flow from Central Asia. The variety of Turkish haplotypes is witness to Turkey being both an important source and recipient of gene flow.

I know there are some interesting snippets of information in this paper about the neolithic expansion, but I’m too tired and will pay more attention to it tomorrow, maybe Monday.

3 responses to “Y-chromosomes in Anatolia

  1. I mapped the Cinnioglu cases of J1 with DYS388=13 at http://tinyurl.com/3kwulm , and expanded on that to add all known and possible cases of J1 with DYS388=13 from other sources. Of course, I have no way of knowing if they are all descendants of the same mutation event. The cases in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Daghestan, and among the Bedouin, may represent Neolithic spread. The other cases probably spread later.

  2. … a minor share of haplogroups related to Central Asian (C, Q and O; 3.4%)

    The assumtion of this origin for Anatolian Q may be wrong. There is significative (minor but diverse) presence of Q clades in South and West Asia (and I just read of two Q erratics, not the Native American clade it seems, in Iberia: one in a Basque and the other in an Andalusian). While the spread of Q by ammount seems to be more centered in NE Eurasia and America, the origins of the clade may well have been farther south, maybe around Pakistan, where probably all derivates from P (Q, R2, R1) coalesced originally (IMO). We see representatives of many diverse minor branches in that area:

    – Q1b in Sindh and among the Hazara (Afghans)
    – Q1a6 among Yemeni Jews (mostly of Yemeni origin, not so much Hebrew)
    – Q1a3* in Pakistan and India
    – New Q1a7 also in South Asia

    I guess that the thinly spread distribution of this haplogroup’s variants mostly suggests a very old distribution that may or not correlate with Central or East Asia.

  3. How can I be European when it derives from IJ? I would have to have been contemporaneous with J and originating in the same place.

    High frequencies do not equate from origin. R1b is more diverse the further east one moves in Europe yet the frequencies in the east of Europe are very small. J1 is very frequent in Yemen, over 70% yet the diversity of J1 in Yemen is very small compared to further north in West Asia where the frequencies are much lower.

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