In this paper we have presented arevised model of cultural development in the early Holocene of the Maghreb using an evolutionary approach which focuses on adaptive processes rather than a diffusionist approach which emphasizes outside contact. In doing so we have argued the following points:
- 1. There is continuity between the Ibero-maurusian and early Holocene industries of Algeria and Tunisia
- 2. There is little evidence at present for influence, either cultural or biological ,from the east.
- 3. During the early Holocene in Algeria and Tunisia two traditions developed from the Iberomaurusian; one located in the west (vicinity of Sétif and west) and the other in the east (eastern Constantine Plains and the Tébessa-Gafsa region).
- 4. Variations within each of these traditions can probably be explained, at least in part, to functional or activity-related variation rather than ethnicity.
- 5. A phase difference, which divides the Eastern tradition (and possibly theWestern tradition) into two chrono-logical periods (Early and LateCapsian), can be defined on the basis of technological differences in bladelet production.
The primary explanatory processesinvoked in our argument are: (1) adaptation to Late Pleistocene/Early Holo-cene environmental change; (2) the effects of relative geographical isolationon populations moving into a large land mass; and (S) descent with modification from slightly divergent (technologically) ancestor populations (western and eastern Iberomaurusian). We present this model as a hypothesis for examination in the hope that it willstimulate debate and lead to research designed to obtain the types of data(biological, environmental, technological/stylistic) needed to evaluate both it and alternate formulations.
A paper about the the stone tool cultures in the Mahgreb. Knowing now that the neolithic did introduce some new people into the area, a possible combo of in situ development plus Neolithic influence is most likely for the Capsian culture, IMO.