A. Arnaiz-Villena and M.H. Crawford., Dept. of Immunology, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain and Dep. of Anthropology, University of Kansas, Lawrence.
The tripartite theory for the peopling of the Americas is supported by this study of approximately 15,000 HLA chromosomes from a worldwide sample. On the basis of the HLA system, it is remarkable that Meso- and South American Amerindians appear to be more closely related to Siberian populations but differ significantly from the Athabaskans and Eskimo-Aleuts. The Aleuts exhibit a high frequency HLADRB1* 0401 and *1402. Both subtypes are absent in neighboring Athabascans or in any other North American First Native populations. A similar pattern is observed for HLA-A* 02 subtypes with * 0206 being frequent in Aleuts but infrequent or absent in other North American populations. The most common extended HLA haplotype in Aleuts, HLA-A* 2402-B* 4002 – DRB1*1402 and DQB1*0301, was absent in ancient North Americans. This study assesses the relationship of genetics and languages of Far Northern European groups and evaluates their potential role in the peopling of the Americas. It is unexpected that our genetic HLA data clusters Andean populations with South Asians, raising questions concerning the reliability and consistency of specific markers in the reconstruction of human evolution. NaDene and Caucasian language groups may have formed an earlier substratum on which other more recent languages evolved in Eurasia and the Americas. The unique frequencies of the HLA haplotypes support the mtDNA sequence- based reconstruction of the phylogenetic position of the Aleuts vis a vis other populations of the Circumpolar region of the world.
Okay, so it’s by Arnaiz-Villena and it’s an HLA study. I think by ‘specific markers’ he’s referring to mt/y DNA. Some more supporting genetic evidence for the Australoid colonisation of South America.