Arabia has served as a strategic crossroads for human disseminations, providing a natural connection between the distant populations of China and India in the east to the western civilizations along the Mediterranean. To explore this region’s critical role in the migratory episodes leaving Africa to Eurasia and back, high-resolution Y-chromosome analysis of males from the United Arab Emirates (164), Qatar (72) and Yemen (62) was performed. The role of the Levant in the Neolithic dispersal of the E3b1-M35 sublineages is supported by the data, and the distribution and STR-based analyses of J1-M267 representatives points to their spread from the north, most likely during the Neolithic. With the exception of Yemen, southern Arabia, South Iran and South Pakistan display high diversity in their Y-haplogroup substructure possibly a result of gene flow along the coastal crescent-shaped corridor of the Gulf of Oman facilitating human dispersals. Elevated rates of consanguinity may have had an impact in Yemen and Qatar, which experience significant heterozygote deficiencies at various hypervariable autosomal STR loci.
This being an older paper.. anyone reading it should look out for M78 as East African, which was shown to be incorrect not long after this was published (Southern Egypt is more likely). It’s dating of E3b1 to the neolithic in Arabia is also quite well out, as a more in depth study by Cruciani shows an expansion ~20k ago or more for it. J1-M267 is also given as a Neolithic arrival, but the latest paper about J1gave a date of about 10k for it arriving in North Africa (Capsian transition). It, like most papers, gives the Levant as the probable place of origin for J1.
Origin of J1-M267
Previous studies on haplogroup J1-M267 have documented high frequencies of this haplogroup in the areas of Oman (38%),4 Iraq (33.1%),22 Egypt (20%),4 Lebanon (12.5%)23 and Turkey (8.99%).12 The combination of these data with the high frequency of J1-M267 in the Yemeni (72.6%), Qatari (58.3%) and UAE (34.8%) samples examined in the present study reveals a decreasing frequency moving from southern Arabia northwards (Spearman’s correlation coefficient with ranks based on distance from Yemen: r=0.9286, n=8, P<0.01). It is also distributed throughout the northwestern African populations at considerable frequencies (35.0 and 30.1% in Algeria and Tunisia, respectively).58 Based on binary and STR markers, the greatest degree of differentiation for J1-M267 is detected in the Levant with two distinct demographic dispersals generating its current distribution