Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events

Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events

Lebanon is an eastern Mediterranean country inhabited by approximately four million people with a wide variety of ethnicities and religions, including Muslim, Christian, and Druze. In the present study, 926 Lebanese men were typed with Y-chromosomal SNP and STR markers, and unusually, male genetic variation within Lebanon was found to be more strongly structured by religious affiliation than by geography. We therefore tested the hypothesis that migrations within historical times could have contributed to this situation. Y-haplogroup J(xJ2) was more frequent in the putative Muslim source region (the Arabian Peninsula) than in Lebanon, and it was also more frequent in Lebanese Muslims than in Lebanese non-Muslims. Conversely, haplogroup R1b was more frequent in the putative Christian source region (western Europe) than in Lebanon and was also more frequent in Lebanese Christians than in Lebanese non-Christians. The most common R1b STR-haplotype in Lebanese Christians was otherwise highly specific for western Europe and was unlikely to have reached its current frequency in Lebanese Christians without admixture. We therefore suggest that the Islamic expansion from the Arabian Peninsula beginning in the seventh century CE introduced lineages typical of this area into those who subsequently became Lebanese Muslims, whereas the Crusader activity in the 11th–13th centuries CE introduced western European lineages into Lebanese Christians.


And still no source for the p25 that went into into east Africa.


6 responses to “Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events

  1. plz ! my dear mathilda , I have question about semites and phoenocians ? who are they?
    Lebane and jordanians also other arabs are mixed race’s ????
    but where are the semites ?

    • Phoenicians were Canaanites. They were a Semitic group that could be described as ‘proto Jewish’.

      The people along that coast are pretty much idistinguishable from a DNA perspective. They are/were all a mixed bag.

  2. And Hebrew and Canaanite were virtually the same language at the time when the Old Testament was first edited into a coherent whole. I guess the most heated disputes are always with the closest relations.

  3. I don’t think Zelloua can be trusted. He has a bias, a Christian Lebanese bias, to prove Christian Lebanese are more White, less Arabian, that is less coloured.

    His data on Mediterranean people trying to prove the Phoenician hypothesis to the origin of certain Mediterranean people is flawed also. He found in a group of Maltese men, no haplogroup J1 just haplogroup J2, Cruciani found J1 at about 8% in Maltese men and two men with sub Saharan E haplogroups, out of 90 men. Zelloua’s Maltese group was much larger yet no J1! I think Zelloua is unethical and untrustworthy.

    What this study does is totally ignore other studies and even common sense. The Levantine coast is on the Mediterranean Sea, the super highway of the Ancients. Europeans and people from Anatolia, Levantines and North Africans have been travelling along it to every part of the Mediterranean since pre, prehistory. Australian Aborigines managed to sail to Australia from SE Asia, to the Sahul, when a sea crossing was required 50 kya. If they can do it I can’t see why more technically advanced people in Europe, North Africa, Anatolia and the Levantine couldn’t do it with the Mediterranean Sea.

    The R group in the Levantine is probably due to back migration from Europe or a migration from the source of R1b in Southwest Asia. R1b is found at high rates with low J1 and J2 in Jordanians near the Dead Sea.

    Also other studies, more reputable than Zelloua’s, show J1 in Arabian men has a northern origin probably the Levantine or Mesopotamia. The Arabian J1 is derivative of Levantine J1. Zelloua wants to believe the opposite because it is found in Muslims more than Christians. Genetic Drift could be a cause. More endogamy with emphasis on male lineages in Muslims could be another reason. You don’t need Crusaders to account for R1b in the Levant or for that matter mtDNA’s of European origin H1, H3 and V being found in the Levant. Not many Frankish women went on Crusade, and they weren’t running off with the Kurdish troops, Saladdin’s people, in the Holy land during the Crusades.

  4. Hi,I’ve been studying your blog and found it to be quite interesting,could you tell me your findings/opinions(sorry if I skipped or haven’t read all there is on your site)or point me where I can find more about romanians+their neighbours and S-E European people?

    • Mainly I deal with North Africa and the near East. For complete info including Europe you’d be better off going to Dienekes Anthroplogy blog.

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