Several populations were typed for the hypervariable region II (HVRII) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region using immobilised sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes. A total of 16 SSO probes was used to type 1081 individuals from eight different ethnic groups (African Americans, Somali, US Europeans, US Hispanics, Bosnians, Finns, Saami and Japanese). Data was compared with already published sequence data by analysis of principal components, genetic distances and analysis of the molecular variance (AMOVA). The analyses performed group the samples in several clusters according to their geographical origins. Most of the variability detected is assigned to differences between individuals and only 7% is assigned to differences among groups of populations within and between geographical regions. Several features are patent in the samples studied: Somali, as a representative East African population, seem to have experienced a detectable amount of Caucasoid maternal influence; different degrees of admixture in the US samples studied are detected; Finns and Saami belong to the European genetic landscape, although Saami present an outlier position attributable to a strong maternal founder effect. The technique used is a rapid and simple method to detect human variation in the mtDNA HVRII in a large number of samples, which might be useful in forensic and population genetic studies.
Finally some info on Somali mt DNA, although it’s not very detailed, probably due to it’s age (’99).
It’s also got a little snippet of autosomal info on Somalis.
Our Somali sample presents features that clearly locate it close to the African samples, but European features are also evident…. For a simple approach to measure the Caucasoid influence in East Africa, the triangle method described by Cavalli-Sforza et al was used to compute the proportion of admixture from the genetic distance matrix. Taking the British as a representative Caucasoid sample and the Mandenka as a sub-Saharan population, the proportion m of caucasoid lineages in the Somali is m = 0.46. This value is similar to the estimate based on autosomal studies (m = 0.40), and clearly higher than the estimates for the mtDNA found in Ethiopians 1 (m = 0.05–0.27)
The last paper I saw put M1 down as 20%, so I’d guess a lot of this input is ancient. This makes Somalis (at least, the ones tested) about the same as Ethiopians for Eurasian ancestry (40% ish). I’d guess some of this dates back to the expansion from Egypt. The Ethiopian maternal Eurasian contributions is now more like 40% (GOT paper) so I assume the data they are reffering to had M1 as African (incorrect now).
The paper describes Hispanics as well, quite a mixed bag genetically, no surprise, and estimates African ancestry in white Americans at 0.8%, and European in black Americans as about 22%, which are very close to the later studies done (I believe the latest tests by Shriver had African ancestry in white Americans as 0.7%).