Egyptian Y DNA and mt DNA reference

All the info I could find, collected in one place from assorted studies, mainly for my own ease of reference. I’ve kept putting this off, but finally here I am.

Egyptian  Y chromosomes

From Luis et al 2004.


 Which places the African Y chromosomes (this is a lower Egyptian sample group) at about 42%. I was most interested by the expansion time for the Eurasian hg’s. Luis et al estimated an expansion time of 13.7–17.5 ky for the K2 lineages in Egypt, although it also states the K2 could have accompanied R1*-M173 back into Africa in the paleolithic along with the U and M1.

Like the R1*-M173 males, the M70 individuals could represent the relics of an early back migration to Africa from Asia, since these chromosomes are not associated with the G-M201, J-12f2, and R1-M173 derivatives, lineages that represent more-recent Eurasian genetic contributions.

It also describes J-12f2 as a marker of the Neolithic expansion. Although looking through the Sudanese Y chromosome study it Hassan puts it down as a recent Arab marker, although no expansion dates are mentioned in his paper, so I’m not sure on what basis that conclusion was drawn. The J is complicated to unravel. After a read of Cruciani 2004 it would seem about 90% of the  J-12f2 is Arabic in origin, but the M172 (J2) is rather older and probably Neolithic, although this doesn’t seem to agree with the age estimates for J-12f2 in this paper. It would seem that J has made several entrances to North Africa.

From Lucotte 2003, which needs this Keita paper to understand it. Haplotypes V, XI and IV are all Pn2 derived (E). VII and VIII are considered Arabic, so I’m assuming J1 is VIII and VII is J2.


The other study that deals with numbered and not named groups is by Franz et al. This puts Hg 1 (E) at 44% in Egypt (Cairo) and J  (Hg 9) at 35%, but unfortunately the rest of the information is a bit vague.

From Arredi 2004 which had a small study of upper and lower Egyptians as part of a North Africa overview.

Lower Egypt (0f 44 samples)

  • 1 A3b2*
  • 4 E3b3a
  • 12 E3b1
  • 2 E3b
  • 5 E3b2
  • 1 J2f1
  • 3 J2
  • 3 F
  • 4 J
  • 1 O
  • 1 K2
  • 4 R1
  • 1 R1a*
  • 2 P

Upper Egypt (of 29 samples)

  • 2 E3b3a
  • 5 E3b1
  • 2 E3b2
  • 1 I
  • 1 J2
  • 5 F
  • 6 J
  • 3 K2
  • 4 R1

Which places AfricanY DNA at 59%, and J at 18% in Lower Egypt, which is close to the Lucotte study. Upper Egypt has a much more diverse profile (oddly) with J at 20% and African Y chromsomes at a much lower 31% with the ‘old in Africa’ R1 and K making up 24% of this (pretty small) sample. Having seen this study I’ve been obliged to dig into the origin of F, and it does look like an ‘ancient in Africa’ Y chromosome (Karafet 2008) as it turns up in the Bantu in South Africa.

From Wood et al 2005,which is in here provisionally until I can check the paper personally as I’ve borrowed it from Maju’s comments.

3/92 = 3.3% A3b2-M13
2/92 = 2.2% B2a1a-M152
1/92 = 1.1% E-SRY4064(xE1a-M33, E2-M75, E1b1-P2)
1/92 = 1.1% E1a-M33
2/92 = 2.2% E1b1a-P1(xE1b1a7-M191)
1/92 = 1.1% E1b1a7-M191
8/92 = 8.7% E1b1b1-M35(xE1b1b1a-M78, E1b1b1b-M81)
28/92 = 30.4% E1b1b1a-M78
4/92 = 4.3% E1b1b1b-M81

2/92 = 2.2% F-P14(xG-M201, H1-M52, I-P19, J-12f2, K-M9)
2/92 = 2.2% G-M201
1/92 = 1.1% I-P19
21/92 = 22.8% J-12f2
1/92 = 1.1% K-M9(xL-M20, M1-M4, N1-LLY22g, O-M175, P-P27, T-M70)
7/92 = 7.6% T-M70
1/92 = 1.1% R-M207(xR1-M173)
2/92 = 2.2% R1-M173(xR1a1-SRY10831b, R1b1-P25)
4/92 = 4.3% R1b1-P25(xR1b1b2-M269)
1/92 = 1.1% R1b1b2-M269

T formerlyK2, I believe. Finally I find a source for the R1b in the Sudan and Cameroon.

Finally a study of J (Giacomo 2004) found the Egyptian sample to be 23.4% J and with more clarity this was..

  • 6 J1
  • 1 J2*
  • 2 J2
  • 1 J2f
  • 1 J2fl

I can’t help noticing there’s a fair amount of variance between these studies. But still the overall picture you get from Lower Egypt is about half native African, with most of the other Eurasian Hg’s dating back into prehistory.

Lower Egypt is about 55% African, mainly E3b, E and then A.

The next largest group is J, which is unfortunately a bit hard to separate out from Neolithic expansion, Capsian expansion, earlier historic population movements and the Arab expansion, but it averages out at 25% from all five studies, with possibly a third of it attributable to non historic expansions (J2, a little  Capsian J1).

After this comes the ‘old in Africa’ haplotypes, which make up the bulk of the remaining Y chromosomes about 19% (again averaging the studies, the HG vary in proportion but they came up near 19% overall).

Which takes Lower Egypt into the low 80% area for paternal ancestry traceable to the dynastic era and earlier. One would assume the Arab expansion didn’t bring anywhere near as much maternal DNA with it, although some tribes did settle in Egypt.

Egyptian mitochondrial DNA

From Berbers at Siwa Oasis (north west Egypt) and from Egyptians at Gurna (upper Egypt area) Detail here.

Siwa; Of 78 samples.

  • Eurasian  45
  • Asian (M) 1
  • North African (U6 and M1) 13
  • Sub Saharan 19

24% SSA, 75% Eurasian/N African.


  • H 5 14.7
  • I 2 5.9
  • J 2 5.9
  • L1a 4 11.7
  • L1e 2 5.9
  • L2a 1 2.9
  • M1 6 17.6
  • N1b 3 8.8
  • T 2 5.9
  • U 3 8.8
  • U3 1 2.9
  • U4 2 5.9
  • L3*(a) 2 5.9
  • L3*(b) 1 2.9

29% SSA, 71% Eurasian/N African.

Surprisingly little difference between them. Lower Nubia came in at about 60% Eurasian an ancient mummy test– and while it’s correct that L3 also comes into the category marked out as Eurasian, it’s actually pretty close to the DNA study of modern Nubians. Unless the invading armies of history were all women there’s no plausible scenario to explain such a huge influx of Eurasian ancestry in such a relatively short space of time, as the Y chromosome presence of Arabs in the area just isn’t that massive in the modern lower Nubia area.

From Krings 1999. Which also shows that Egyptian maternal DNA is roughly 25% sub Saharan and 75% Eurasian. 



Ancient Egyptian DNA

To obtain the frequencies of these mtDNA types, amplification of the HVRI region and three RFLP markers was conducted. The authors succeeded in analysing RFLP markers in 34 samples and HVRI sequences in 18 of the samples. Both populations, ancient and contemporary, fit the north-south clinal distribution of “southern” and “northern” mtDNA types (Graver et al. 2001). However, significant differences were found between these populations. Based on an increased frequency of HpaI 3592 (+) haplotypes in the contemporary Dakhlehian population, the authors suggested that, since Roman times, gene flow from the Sub-Saharan region has affected gene frequencies of individuals from the oasis.

Which suggests the proportion of sub Saharan lineages is higher now than it once was at Dahkleh (SW Egypt). Bearing in mind that the Arab slave trade in African women seems to have accounted for about 10-15% of the maternal DNA in Arabia, this would seem the most likely cause in the increase of sub Saharan lineages. It would seem that post dynastic inflow maternal from sub Saharan African is passably close match to the paternal immigration from Arabs, and that these are probably the two most influential factors in immigration in post dynastic Egypt.

Not strictly speaking Egyptian but still relevant.

Copts from the Sudan, from Hassan 2008.

  • 13/33 J1
  • 5/33 B
  • 2/33 E3b
  • 5/33 E3b1
  • 2/33 J2
  • 1/33 K
  • 5/33 R1b

Nubians from the Sudan

  • 3/39 B
  • 3/39 E3b
  • 6/39 E3b1
  • 4/39 F
  • 2/49 I
  • 16/39 J1
  • 1/39 J2
  • 4/39 R1b

The high level of J1 is quite a surprise in both of these. Particlarly since Copts aren’t supposed to marry out. A y chr study of Cairo Copts could be informative as to just how much mixing there has been between the two groups there.

One thing that became apparent after reading through these DNA studies was that there was a somewhat higher level of African male ancestry in Egyptians than in a lot of the East African groups, and that the Horn Africans and Egyptians are really made up of very similar ancestries (West Asian, North East African and East African with a little Bantu here and there) but in varying ratios.

Reference list.

  1.  Luis 2004
  2.  Cruciani 2004
  3. Lucotte 2003
  4. Wood 2005
  5. Franz 2002
  6. Hassan 2008
  7. Krings 1999
  8. Arredi 2004
  9. Karafet 2008
  10. Giacomo 2004

28 responses to “Egyptian Y DNA and mt DNA reference

  1. Good write up.
    In regards to J you have to look at the studies and research the different Coding motifs.
    SNP – Deep Ancestry.
    STR – Recent Ancestry.

    Taking this into account they can look at the STR of Haplgroup J1-M276, in Ethiopia and see that it is from the Neolithic. When they look at the STR data or RECENT Ancestral markers they see that MOST of the M267 in North Africa is characteristic of the Arab migration with Islam (YCAIIa-22/YCAIIb-22 motif), quite different than in East Africa. Not all of it, but most of it. This can be seen as a “Cluster” if you will, but it will still be all shown as M267 when you are looking at a study.

    J1 came First to Africa to Ethiopia possibly through the gate of Tears – Hence the name of another study that researched mtdna. Thousands of years later it came into Africa again through the Levant. Probably with goats/sheep. Even later Back to Ethiopia probably with Semitic language. And then it came into North Africa in the last journey with Islam. Most of the J1 in North Africa has a specific motif (YCAIIa-22/YCAIIb-22) that is seen as happening within a specific population limited to a specific timeframe – 700’s. Alternatively J-M12 mirrors E-V13 and its specific STR data has been used in tracing Greek presence in surrounding areas during historic times. The J1 that you see in Egypt and Sudan are from 2 different episodes. Only looking at the STR data do we know which one is which. The fact that Sudan and Egypt’s and much of North African languages were replaced by Arabic and also their CULTURE was replaced plus they have been “Arabized” should make the conclusion a tad bit easier.

    J2 on the other hand probably comes from the fertile crescent and is pretty rare in Africa. Many populations that DO have J2 probably have more K2 than J2. – See the Hassan 2008 study on how little j2 is found in the Sudanese Nile Valley.
    Many think that Farming was spread by J2 and NOT J1. Which is interesting, but people of the Arab Peninsula (Majority J1) have always known to be Nomadic pastorialists while the people of the Fertile Crescent (J2) are not. I would suspect much J2 seen in Sudan and Egypt to be remnants of Ottoman Turks.

    Egyptians berbers. – I am not sure what this means but Egyptians Berbers probably have less M81 than Berbers in Mali.
    I have seen one study where Egyptians Berbers were sampled over 60% E-V6.
    E-V6 – 15% Amhara
    E-V6 – 17% Woylata
    E-V6 – 60% Siwa ?
    What about the STR Data and the Siwa vs Ethiopians and who’s V-6 is older?

    To really get a good study on Egyptians they really have to sample different regions and break it up by ethnic group. Looking at the population all mashed together doesnt really show the big picture. Lucotte tried but you really cant see which populations are outliners.

    As far as Ydna goes you could really see that Amhara with 33 % J1 or Ethiopian Jews with a large % of haplgroup A and B, or Oromo with a large amount of V32 can be outliners in a study instead of all these figures just mashed together and simply called “Ethiopian.” I have yet to see one Decent sample of Egyptians. While Hassan in 2008 did a better job via Sudan, i even found HIS Study lacking in technical data.

  2. let me explain something in here because people seem to miss understand who are the people who have been living in the south of Egypt.

    I’m family comes from Naquada, and thats 20 miles from Luxor. Now, The people who have taken over are pretty much All nubians, Have taken over the south, Aswan as well as Luxor.

    I mean for anyone that does any testing on them, they will realize that they have an African Blood.

    Now, IF anyone take blood samples from the Copts (Sa3dies) from Egypt and you’ll have a duplicate to the pharaohs. Many of the copts have fled Egypt because we’re being prosecuted.

  3. Pharon – I see what you are saying but your assumptions make some HUGE Mistakes.

    1 – All Egyptians dont look the same. They dont have to look like YOU our your family to be Egyptian.

    2 – Egypt has one of the largest populations, right after Nigeria and probably tied with Ethiopia. You cannot say all the Black people, or dark skinned Egyptians in Egypt are “Nubian” when there are less than 500,000 Nubians and MOST of them live in Sudan. Egyptians are KNOWN to really stay put and NOT leave their country, unlike other groups in Africa. Those dark skinned Egyptians are not newcomers, they have been their since Egypt was populated by humans.

    3. Some of that “African Blood” you speak of is native TO Egypt. Some of the markers are NOT native to Egypt but they are African still. As a matter of fact MOST of the Y-Markers seen IN Egypt are of the African Continent and not from somewhere else. Some of the markers that you speak of are African and actually represent what it means to be Egyptian:

    28/92 = 30.4% E1b1b1a-M78 – (African – Egyptian)

    3/92 = 3.3% A3b2-M13 (African – Sudanese-Ethiopian)

    2/92 = 2.2% B2a1a-M152 (African – Sudanese Nilotic)

    1/92 = 1.1% E-SRY4064(African – West African)

    1/92 = 1.1% E1a-M33 (African- Mali – Sahara)

    2/92 = 2.2% E1b1a-P1 ( West African)

    1/92 = 1.1% E1b1a7-M191 (West African)

    8/92 = 8.7% E1b1b1-M35 (African – Ethiopian)

    4/92 = 4.3% E1b1b1b-M81 (African – Berber)

    ALL THESE LINEAGES come from within Africa and nowhere else. And the Egyptian marker is an African Marker.

    Personal question, have you been tested for your Y-Dna or Mtdna markers? How do you know what will come up. It really doesnt matter what you look like, the marker could be anything on this list.

  4. ALso keep in mind that “Nubian” is just an Ethnic group in Egypt. You can be both Egyptian AND Nubian.

  5. Thanks for this very nice review, Mathilda.

    with the ‘old in Africa’ R1 and K making up 24% of this (pretty small) sample.

    R1 seems to increase to the south, with highest levels found in Sudan and also North Cameroun. How old is K2 (T) estimated to be in Africa?

    Having seen this study I’ve been obliged to dig into the origin of F, and it does look like an ‘ancient in Africa’ Y chromosome (Karafet 2008) as it turns up in the Bantu in South Africa.

    Too distant to be the same thing, right? F* is a paragroup and therefore can include some other downstream clades. In the Egyptian case G, H1, J, I and K are excluded what basically leaves out nearly all major subclades (it could still be H2, H* or even IJ*) and then there are a number of F1-4 very small subclades too. But yes, agreed that it looks very intriguing. But I’d like to know the negative definition of South African F* before thinking of any possible connection, because this one could well turn out of European or South Asian origin.

    I’ve borrowed it from Maju’s comments

    Ebizur’s merit, not mine.

    Surprisingly little difference between them. Lower Nubia came in at about 60% Eurasian an ancient mummy test (…) Unless the invading armies of history were all women there’s no plausible scenario to explain such a huge influx of Eurasian ancestry in such a relatively short space of time, as the Y chromosome presence of Arabs in the area just isn’t that massive in the modern lower Nubia area.

    Totally agree (unless you choose to believe in the legend of Mirina, Queen of Amazons, who defeated the Atlanteans and then allied with them going through all North Africa until she was killed in Asia Minor – not really believable as it sounds). It seems that NE Africa has a mainly West Asian ancestry and that this ancestry is very old, even if it may have been reinforced through historical epysodes.

    Notably NW African “Eurasian” clades do not show up in meaningful numbers in the Egyptian Gurma sample: H is only 5% (c.25% in NW Africans, much higher in some subpopulations) and U6 is not even detected. But, well, surprisingly enough typical Egyptian X1 is also not detected so guess we can blame to the specificty and small size of the sample.

  6. You guys wanna know who are the coptics..

    The Coptic people are the descendants of the ancient Egyptians. The known history of the Copts or Egypt starts with King Mina or Menas the first King, who united the northern and southern kingdoms of Egypt circa 3050 B.C. The ancient Egyptian civilization under the rule of the Pharaohs lasted for approximately 3000 years.

  7. Egyptians, sometimes even defined as the “modern sons of the Pharaohs”

  8. Still didn’t answer the questions and Copts are NOT the only Egyptians. What about the other 60-70 MILLION people in the population?

    Known Egyptian history actually starts before unification : Predynastic. Much of the religion, the symbolism, Hieroglyphs, icons such as the Crook, Flail, Red Crown, White Crown, etc all come before unification takes place.

  9. I consider the statement of the spread of J-M267 in Africa and from what sources stated by Igbo to be generalised.

    Semino and Rootsi both calculated the age of J-M267 as being 24,000 years old. That is much older than the Neolithic age or any Arabians, Jews or any of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages. It is of SW Asian in origin.

    North African J-M267 is similar to Arabian J1 as it shares the Sana’a or Galilee modal haplotype i.e has 388=17, 391=11 and other features of Arabian J-M267. That does not prove that haplotype come with the few Arabians that went to North Africa just that it is the same. The YCA 22/22 is common in Ashkenazim, Sephardic Jewish and European J-M267, and is bimodal with YCA 19/22. What can be said is that YCA 22/22 is more common than YCA 19/22 in the Middle East. It should be remembered that North Africans are descended from Cro Magnoids, and Caucasoids who came from the Middle East probably bringing J-M267 with them long before any Arabian set foot in North Africa.

    The history of J-M267 has not been adequately worked out and no study has included the African, Asian, European and Caucasus J-M267. The conclusion drawn by that researcher who stated YCA 22/22 was a signature of the Arabians who took part in the Islamisation of North Africa was premature and not scientific. Capelli has made some conclusions as to which haplogroups in Europe are from North Africans who lived in Iberia, Italy and Malta for centuries including a part of J-M267.

    • Funny you should say that Ponto- I’m in the middle of a post that’s trying to grapple with the J in Egypt and North Africa.

      There’s at least two references now to the J1 in North Africa being ancient – Im/Capsian transition in one. I’m trying to figure out the J2- and I suspect a lot of it is Neolithic as it’s a minority in the near East; to be in North Africa at it’s current levels would have needed a much larger input of other recent Eurasian contribitions to go wioth it if it was all historical, it could have entered with the R1b in the Neolithic.

  10. WOW! Great article! Very interesting information! It’s amazing how many things a DNA analysis can provide!

  11. I think Cruciani 2007 or 2008 has a lot more information. He found E-V12 at 44% in Luxor, Egypt.

    • Yes, but it’s harder to group the information correctly if he’s just studying one clade. I did have a look at the paper when I was writing this though.

  12. Copts came with the Greeks, and they are not original Egyptians

  13. Ponto said: North African J-M267 is similar to Arabian J1 as it shares the Sana’a or Galilee modal haplotype i.e has 388=17, 391=11 and other features of Arabian J-M267.

    Well, North (NW) African J1 is far more frequent in Tunisia than elsewhere. So it is not impossible that it arrived with Phoenicians and Arabs. Curiously though, J1 is very rare in Southern Iberia, where Phoenician influence was virtually the same as in Tunisia and Arab influence not much lower. Therefore I would suspect some older source like a Neolithic founder effect maybe.

    By the way, can you point us to a reference to check that J1 haplotype data first hand?

    Mathilda said: There’s at least two references now to the J1 in North Africa being ancient – Im/Capsian transition in one.

    Sounds like a nice possibility. Too frequent to be just historical, IMO.

    I’m trying to figure out the J2- and I suspect a lot of it is Neolithic…

    The ammount is low enough to have that origin. J2 is in fact a lot more frequent in Iberia (almost in every region) than anywhere in North Africa. The same happens with the other clade related to the West Asian highlands: G. Instead former E3b1 (probably of Neolithic or post-Neolithic origin) is similarly common at both sides of Alboran Sea.

    Any idea about the 5% of F* [F(xG-K)] found in Tunisia and Algeria. It’s intriguing.

    [All the above data from Adams 2008, behind paywall – map posted at Dienekes]

  14. Ponto – SO TRUE:
    *J1-M267 Y lineage marks climate-driven pre-historical human displacements*


    ………the spatial expansion of hunter gatherers in response to the end of the late Pleistocene cooling phases and (2) the displacement of groups of foragers/herders following the mid-Holocene rainfall retreats across the Sahara and Arabia. ***** Furthermore, J1 STR motifs previously used to trace Arab or Jewish ancestries were shown unsuitable as diagnostic markers for ethnicity. *****

    Although Haplogroup J is characteristic of Populations in the Near and Middle East in some cases it is Less Diverse in those Areas, although it has a higher frequency. We can see a parallel in E-M123, Higher frequency in Ethiopia, More Diverse in the Middle East.

    I think a key to these studies is going to be Socotrans, a populations that has a very high Frequency of J* There is one study that I have been unable to read. Also the study that i quoted above just came out.

    There is even an older study questioned the Arabian origin and said it could possibly be Southern Europe or North East Africa, based on the Diversity seen there.

  15. Dubious Grouping. I am just now noticing how you grouped the MTDNA ”

    “24% SSA, 75% Eurasian/N African.
    29% SSA, 71% Eurasian/N African.”

    This is dishonest. There is no biological nor geographical reason to group the “Eurasian” and “North African” Together. This disregards the relations ship between Supra Saharan Africans in general. Do you think it is also appropriate to group North African Y-Chromosome clades in with the “Eurasian” ones? Then why so for MTDNA? Is this grouping practiced in the study you quoted from?

    Your sole point seems to be an attempt to separate “Sub-Saharan African” on one side and collect “Everything Else” on the other side. If this is your intent then there is no issue just state your motive. But the “Everything Else” designation contains some clades that are thought to have an origin in Africa. [That is why they are called “North African” and NOT Eurasian] Thats why i call it out as dubious. It is like stating that Mtdna L3 is NOT Sub-Saharan, and adding it to the “Eurasian/North African” total. – Dubious and intellectually dishonest, respectfully.

    • I grouped the Eurasian north African together for a couple of reasons.

      The North African is derived from Eurasian (most relevant), both are asscoieted with the caucasoid North Africans, and that’s pretty much how it’s done in all the papers you’ll read.

  16. This is dishonest. There is no biological nor geographical reason to group the “Eurasian” and “North African” Together.

    Absloutely not, Igbo. Eurasian mtDNA is M and N derived (they are in turn derived from African L3 but that happened long ago and there was at least a quite extended Asian phase in between.

    So L(xM,N), we call “African” and M and N we call “Eurasian” – with good reason. You could argue that U6 is African as well but is derived from West/Souh Eurasian U, which in turn derives from South Asian R and (possibly SE Asian) N. And is rarely found south of the Sahara anyhow.

    Do you think it is also appropriate to group North African Y-Chromosome clades in with the “Eurasian” ones?.

    This would be different because E1b1b is (with all likelihood) of African origin, as the overall haplogroup E. Grouping E1b1b with J and R would be surely “dishonest”, unless you’re making a point of NE African origins or something of the like (this would be honest).

    In any case, the situation is much more clear cut for mtDNA.

    I think that trying to dilute the differences between Tropical and Mediterranean Africa is also dishonest. True that the border is diffuse in NE Africa (i.e. Nile Basin and The Horn) but is a distinction that applies to every other region in Africa.

    Dumping Moroccans, Yorubas, Somalis and Bushmen together would also be an act of dishonesty, probably a much more daunting one that the ones you are denouncing. Africa is the most diverse continent by far (even if that diversity is mixed and not rigidly structured by geography) and part of that diversity, notably important in North Africa, is the presence of backmigrating Eurasian elements.

    By all accounts North Africa clusters much better (by genetics and phenotype) with West Eurasia than anywhere south of the Sahara. Nevertheless it also has a strong connection with Sudan and The Horn (particularly). I (and most others) consider North Africa as part of West Eurasia in the general context and with good reason. Of course, it is the more “African” part of West Eurasia (logically).

  17. Mathilda could you give the somali DNA
    both Y chromosomal and Mitochondrial in relation to the upper Egyptian and berber samples

    e.g. SSA and Eurasia


    • I believe the Somali maternal DNA is about 40%, the same as Ethiopain more or less. Its on the Somali genetics page…

      the proportion m of caucasoid lineages in the Somali is m = 0.46. (46%)

      The maternal DNA is about 20% M1.

      and that the Somali male population has approximately 15% Y chromosomes from Eurasia and approximately 5% from sub-Saharan Africa….. E3b1 (77.6%) and K2 (10.4%).

      This is as good as I’m getting here. Thats a whole day of work and you’ll just have to wait until I get around to doing it as a page!

  18. Thanks alot. So thats Mt DNA = 40% eurasian
    20% M1 (what is that?)
    and the remaining 40% ?

    Also what is E3b1? You said in another page that ts was a “mixed race gene”. How can a gene be mixed race?

    Also have you taken the clan factor into account, Different clans would have slightly different genetic make-up.

    P.S. I am sorry for posting on this page,

    • How can a gene be mixed race?

      Its from a population in Nubia that was a mix of Eurasian and African ancestry. Its essentially a marker for an expansion from this mixed group, and while it’s African in origin carriers tend to have a lot of Eurasian in them too.

  19. I am interested in hearing more about Igbo’s auguments. Igbo, please email me at

  20. Question (I am new at DNA results intepretation). I have J2f1 lineage on my mothers-father’s side and K1 on my mothers-mothers’s side. I am trying to determine if I have Sephardic Jewish or Spanish ancestry. Is there any reasonable inference that J2f1 points to Sephardic rather than Ashkenazic heritage?

  21. Can you give an estimate of the proportions of this “mix”?

  22. So, What is the Eurasian component (what haplogroup)? and What is the african component?

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