Two groups of humans are found in the Near East ~100,000 years ago, the late archaic Neanderthals and the early modern Skhul/ Qafzeh humans. Observations that Neanderthals were more heavily muscled, had stronger upper-limb bones, and possessed unusual shapes and orientations of some upper-limb joint complexes relative to the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids, have led some researchers to conclude that significant between-group upper limb- related behavioral differences must have been present, despite the association of the two groups with similar Middle Paleolithic archeological complexes. A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the hand remains of the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids, Neanderthals, early and late Upper Paleolithic humans, and Holocene humans supports the dichotomy. The Skhul/Qafzeh carpometacarpal remains do not have any unique morphologies relative to the other fossil samples remains examined. However, in the functionally significant metacarpal 1 and 3 bases they resemble Upper Paleolithic humans, not Neanderthals. Furthermore, the
Skhul/Qafzeh sample differs significantly from the Neanderthals in many other aspects of hand functional anatomy. Given the correlations between changes in tool technologies and functional adaptations seen in the hands of Upper Paleolithic humans, it is concluded that the Skhul/Qafzeh hand remains were adapted to Upper Paleolithic-like manipulative repertoires. These results support the inference of significant behavioral differences between Neanderthals and the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids and indicate that a significant shift in human manipulative behaviors was associated with the earliest stages of the emergence of modern humans.
A little prep work for my list of before 40k sites where modern Humans are found out of Africa.
The fossil remains from the ‘80,000- to 100,000-year-old site of Skhul (5) and the 100,000-year-old site of Qafzeh (1, 2), both in Israel, are craniofacially more modern and less muscular than Neanderthals.
These features, plus the results just presented, demonstrate that the Skhul/Qafzeh and Neanderthal samples are distinct from each other in the most functionally significant regions of the hand and that the Skhul/Qafzeh hand remains are morphologically and functionally within the range of the combined EUP/LUP samples.
Although there is some arguing about who these people were, the general agreement is that they were modern humans, dated to about 100k ago in Israel. There are shell beads dated to 100,000 -130,000 years from this site.