Genetic variation of 15 autosomal STR loci in Upper (Southern) Egyptians

Genetic variation of 15 autosomal STR loci in Upper (Southern) Egyptians

A sample of 265 unrelated individuals inhabiting five governorates in Upper (south) Egypt was collected with informed consent. The samples were amplified using the AmpFℓSTR®Identifiler™PCR Amplification Kit (containing 15 loci: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA), and genotyped subsequent to capillary electrophoresis. Statistical analysis of the generated data indicated neither departure from expectation of Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in most of the tested loci nor dependence of alleles between loci. All tested loci were polymorphic; the most discriminating is D18S51 while the least is TPOX. The combined power of exclusion was 0.99999868 and the combined match probability was 1.93×10−18. The genetic diversity of the Upper Egyptians was compared with those of other populations at the local, regional and global levels.

Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) based on pair-wise FST genetic distances of Upper Egyptian and other diverse global populations. OCE, Oceanian; ME, Middle Eastern; NAF, North African; EAS, East Asian; SSA, sub-Saharan African; UEGY, Upper Egyptian; SAS, South Asian; EUR, European. The figure shows that Oceania and American populations are very distant from Upper Egyptians (marked by a grey triangle) and other populations. The Upper Egyptian population is closer to the Middle Eastern, North African, South Asian and European populations than others.

Not a mega surprise that upper Egyptians grouped closer to north African and near Eastern rather than West African samples. It would have been nice to see Ethiopian samples too, for a better sense of perspective.


5 responses to “Genetic variation of 15 autosomal STR loci in Upper (Southern) Egyptians

  1. Nice vid!
    These faces of ancient Egyptians mostly look like Mediterraneans to me; rather like Berbers.
    Maybe they were!!!
    I bet that your vid really pisses the Afrocentrists off!!!
    Nice one Matilda!

  2. I know this comment is out of place. I’m wondering of any recent DNA studies among Native Americans has shown ANY origin other than across the Bering Strait? I remember reading some time ago about the possibility of Portugese fisherman following the ice from Europe to N. America and populating the East Coast. Has that idea been refuted? TIA

    • The point of origin of the maternal DNA type X is still being argued over, with people claiming it came over the Siberian route even though there’s no evidence of it being in East Asia.

  3. This is a good study, but like you said they need to use more East African and Saharan Groups, particularly AfroAsiatic speakers.

    But there is one thing that comes to mind and seems like an anomaly to be further investigatied: Haplotype E3a or M2 in the Nile Valley and Egypt.
    Brief Communication: Y-Chromosome Haplotypes in Egypt. Lucotte et al:

    “Y-chromosome (IV) E-M2 is diversified with:
    -(1.2% )- Lower Egypt,
    -(27.3%) -Upper Egypt.
    -( 39.1% ) -in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.”

    “Haplotype IV is characteristic of sub-Saharan populations in Africa (Torroni et al., 1990; Spurdle and Jenkins, 1992), where its geographical distribution can be an indication of Bantu expansion: for example, in Central Africa (Lucotte et al., 1994), the frequency of haplotype IV is 55.2% in Cameroon, and reaches 80.3% in Zaire and up to 83.9% in the Central African Republic.”
    [Ignoring the Bantu verbiage as Senegalese are 90+% M2 and speak no Bantu.]

    Upper Egypt and Lower Nubia have more of Haplotype IV (M2) frequency than Both VII and VIII (Semitic) combined.
    I guess i am just surprised that these findings haven’t ever been duplicated. And they tested in some traditional areas:
    Karnak, Luxor, Aswan, Abu Simbel, Alexandria.

    Does this cross your mind? Maybe Haplotype IV is not M2 even though the authors say it is?

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