A sample of 265 unrelated individuals inhabiting five governorates in Upper (south) Egypt was collected with informed consent. The samples were amplified using the AmpFℓSTR®Identifiler™PCR Amplification Kit (containing 15 loci: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA), and genotyped subsequent to capillary electrophoresis. Statistical analysis of the generated data indicated neither departure from expectation of Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in most of the tested loci nor dependence of alleles between loci. All tested loci were polymorphic; the most discriminating is D18S51 while the least is TPOX. The combined power of exclusion was 0.99999868 and the combined match probability was 1.93×10−18. The genetic diversity of the Upper Egyptians was compared with those of other populations at the local, regional and global levels.
Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) based on pair-wise FST genetic distances of Upper Egyptian and other diverse global populations. OCE, Oceanian; ME, Middle Eastern; NAF, North African; EAS, East Asian; SSA, sub-Saharan African; UEGY, Upper Egyptian; SAS, South Asian; EUR, European. The figure shows that Oceania and American populations are very distant from Upper Egyptians (marked by a grey triangle) and other populations. The Upper Egyptian population is closer to the Middle Eastern, North African, South Asian and European populations than others.
Not a mega surprise that upper Egyptians grouped closer to north African and near Eastern rather than West African samples. It would have been nice to see Ethiopian samples too, for a better sense of perspective.