Tag Archives: Y chromosomes

Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus

Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus

We have analyzed mtDNA HVI sequences and Y chromosome haplogroups based on 11 binary markers in 371 individuals, from 11 populations in the Caucasus and the neighbouring countries of Turkey and Iran. Y chromosome haplogroup diversity in the Caucasus was almost as high as in Central Asia and the Near East, and significantly higher than in Europe. More than 27% of the variance in Y-haplogroups can be attributed to differences between populations, whereas mtDNA showed much lower heterogeneity between populations (less then 5%), suggesting a strong influence of patrilocal social structure. Several groups from the highland region of the Caucasus exhibited low diversity and high differentiation for either or both genetic systems, reflecting enhanced genetic drift in these small, isolated populations. Overall, the Caucasus groups showed greater similarity with West Asian than with European groups for both genetic systems, although this similarity was much more pronounced for the Y chromosome than for mtDNA, suggesting that male-mediated migrations from West Asia have influenced the genetic structure of Caucasus populations.

An older paper, but one I hadn’t taken a look at.

Unfortunately there isn’t as much detail on the mt DNA.

From one long ago read text, I can remember that one North Caucasus late neolithic site had a tendency to have Mediterranean male crania with the more robust local females. This could support that  population movements into the area from the Iran/Turkey area (birthplace of the Neolithic) may have been male lead, which might give a clue as to how each the Caucasus population has such a heterogenous Y chromosome profile.

Tunisian and Moroccan Y Chromosomes

Y-chromosome markers distribution in Northern Africa: High-resolution SNP and STR analysis in Tunisia and Morocco populations

Valerio Onofria, Federica Alessandrinia, Chiara Turchia, Mauro Pesaresia and Adriano Tagliabracci, a,
Abstract
At the beginning of 2006 more than 301,000 immigrants resident in Italy resulted to come from Tunisia and Morocco, 66% of which are male subjects; in addition, it is estimated that some other thousand are clandestine. Our data show that there is an increasing involvement of Tunisian and Moroccan individuals in paternity testing and in individual identification cases. For these reasons, the aim of this work was to enrich forensic Y-chromosome databases with Northern Africa data to better know markers frequency and their distribution across these populations. 103 Tunisian and Moroccan healthy male donors were typed by 17 microsatellites extended haplotype and 41 Y-SNPs. A high-resolution level database was created, including both haplotype and haplogroup for each sample. This study confirmed that precious informations might come both from Y-SNPs haplogroup distribution besides Y-STRs data.

[morocco_tunisia.jpg]

After just re-reading the Guanche Y chr the total abscence of  ‘I’ across this part of N Africa is a mystery. How did it get to the Canaries when it skipped Morocco? Admittedly the sample size is a bit small. Maybe it got missed.

Guanche Y chromosomes

Hairy Harry, Mad Peter and Tiny Amon

Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European

Abstract
 The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th-18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Ychromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times.

Results
Autochthonous (E-M81) and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267) Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly being substituted by European lineages. Male and  female sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th-18th centuries than today.

Conclusions
The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts.

Unashamedly nicked from Maju- but topped off with a genuine portrait of a Guanche male called Hairy Harry (centre) shown to me by Ricardo.

gydna

Interesting to see the J1, which a couple of studies have placed in North Africa from about 10k ago. A fair amount of other older Eurasian lines. I’ll have another read of this one later.

Y chromosomes are against an African origin for Afro Asiatic.

I used to agree with the old Ehret/Kieta model for the E3b1 Y chr as a marker for Afro Asiatic, but its become apparent that all the population movements into the near East involving this Y chromosome are too ancient to be tacked on to any modern language group. A few months of rolling this idea around, and the DNA evidence and dating seems to support an Asian origin a lot better.

Against an African origin-

The Genetics

Once it  became apparent that Omotic as an Afro Asiatic language was dubious, with it being shown to be a language isolate by several linguists- it turned out all the African Afro Asiatic speakers show Neolithic Y chromosome input from the near East, in some cases overwhelmingly. The main examples for this are the Ouldeme and other Chadic speaking tribes in Cameroon, who have tested as having an outstandingly high percentage of the Y chromosome R1b, a Eurasian Y chromosome that fits the spread of Chadic languages like a glove. As far as I can tell, the ultimate point of origin for this seems to be SE Turkey, which is within the origin area of the agricultural Neolithic expansion. So, most Chadic male ancestry traces back to the origin point of the Neolithic, which is a big supporter of an Asian origin for Afro Asiatic.

Another Y chromosome that shows a population movementthat tracks Afro Asiatic is from the Nile delta – the M81 Y chromosome. The advent of this mutation is extremely close in time to the entry of R1b’s entry into North East Africa, and it appears to have spread out into North Africa with the Neolithic farmers, and also as far as Somalia, where it is found at a very low rate, but just enough to confirm a Neolithic movement from North to South along the Nile.aae10

 

The language and its dates

Mainly my gripes are based on Dr Ehret’s work on AA languages. His inclusion of Omotic as an Afro Asiatic language was always speculative, and now it appears that it shows no more than a chance relationship to the Cushitic languages (Theil). I suspect he was keen to include it as an AA language as it shores up the African origin by providing him a pre agricultural Afro Asiatic language in East Africa- which now seems to be wishful thinking on Ehrets part.

Looking at Dr Ehret’s dates for the Afro Asiatic group, one major flaw leaps out. He dates proto Cushitic at 10,000 BP, which he describes as an African pastoralist language with goats and sheep. This is impossible, as goats and sheep do not enter Africa until 2,000 years after this date.  If it were correct as a date, this would locate proto Cushitic in the North of the Levant. Assuming that the Cushitic branch is native to East Africa, the arrival of ovicaprines to the area is first known about 5,500 BP in the Sudan. Assuming that the Cushitic branch moved along the coastal areas ( the joining dialects between Egypt and East Africa later wiped out by Asian Semitic languages, and a Nilo Saharan block to them in Nubia), a date of about 6,000 BP for the separation of Cushitic in East Africa would be more likely. This casts major doubt on Ehret’s dating methods for all his work, and really casts a big shadow over his dating of technologies by dating the proto language (the basis of most of his claims for early pastoralism in Africa). This would probably mean Nilo Saharan was the indigenous language group of East Africa prior to the Neolithic.

The dates for proto Cushitic mean his 14,000 BP date for proto Erythraic (ditching the older 15k date for PAA as the Omotic Branch is now defunct) corrects to 10,000 BP assuming his rate of miscalculation is stable at 40%. As a minor note, I’ve seen text books place a maximum date of 10k for any language family, which makes me query Ehret’s work on dates for yet another reason. This 10k age limit would also support all his dates being 40% too old, which would also re-date Cushitic to about 6,000 BP- which agrees with my own estimation.

All the known population movements in this 10k time frame are into  Africa, matching the expansion of the Neolithic, which also matches the expansion of the Y chromosomes R1b and M81 in Africa. There’s no known cultural expansion out of Africa  that could fit this time frame or  movements of African Y chromosomes/mt DNA dated to this era in the near East.

The ancient presence of Semitic in Asia.

Then there is the proximity of Semitic and proto Indo European languages. Numerous agricultural terms turn up in PIE, words for barley, bull etc, that are all suggestive of the Semitic family being present close to the origin point of IE languages when they adopted farming (I’m not ignoring that they may possibly have had the same root dialect at one time). After reconciling the ‘Turkish’ and ‘North of the  Black sea’ origins for proto Indo European (the older IE languages seem to be Anatolian, the last node was ‘Kurgan’) this would place Semitic in contact with older PIE dialects around 9,000 BP. Bearing in mind the age for PAA is needs to be about 10,000 BP for at least two good reasons, this is also not supportive of an African origin for Afro Asiatic.

Theorised tree for Afro Asiatic (my fifth revision)…

paa3

The population movements suggest to me that the African AA languages all came from a common tongue at the Nile delta, and then split up from each other and differentiated very quickly as the pastoralist groups moved away more swiftly than the farmers. This might explain why proto Afro Asiatic has been such a bugger to reconstruct; it’s right on the maximum age, and some of the root words for crops and farming implements etc could have been lost by the rapidly moving pastoralist groups who never grew crops.

The main reason I’ve focused on the R1b is the ‘sore thumbness’ of its presence in central/West Africa, and the M81 because of its Neolithic age and Egyptian place of origin. I’ve steered clear of the J1 and J2 Y chromosomes in this entry, as at present it isn’t very clear what entered East And North Africa in the Capsian, what with the Neolithic and what with the Arabs. J seems to have arrived in  Africa in three waves. Really it needs an in-depth going over by a specialist study to untangle it, but some papers do discuss J arriving into Africa with the Neolithic, and it is seen in East Africa as far as Somalia, so it’s not impossible one minor J hg also matches the distribution of AA languages in Africa too.

J1-M267 Y lineage marks climate-driven pre-historical human displacements

J1-M267 Y lineage marks climate-driven pre-historical human  displacements

Sergio Tofanelli et al.
The present day distribution of Y chromosomes bearing the haplogroup J1 M267*G variant has been associated with different episodes of human demographic history, the main one being the diffusion of Islam since the Early Middle Ages. To better understand the modes and timing of J1 dispersals, we reconstructed the genealogical relationships among 282 M267*G chromosomes from 29 populations typed at 20 YSTRs and 6 SNPs. Phylogenetic analyses depicted a new genetic background consistent with climate-driven demographic dynamics occurring during two key phases of human pre-history: (1) the spatial expansion of hunter gatherers in response to the end of the late Pleistocene cooling phases and (2) the displacement of groups of foragers/herders following the mid-Holocene rainfall retreats across the Sahara and Arabia. Furthermore, J1 STR motifs previously used to trace Arab or Jewish ancestries were shown unsuitable as diagnostic markers for ethnicity.

[j1.jpg]

One to add to the J page. I ‘ll have to access the paper later- so no deep insights on this one as yet. Take a month of sick and you do get behind with this stuff.

Near Eastern Neolithic genetic input in a small oasis of the Egyptian Western Desert

Near Eastern Neolithic genetic input in a small oasis of the Egyptian Western Desert

The Egyptian Western Desert lies on an important geographic intersection between Africa and Asia. Genetic diversity of this region has been shaped, in part, by climatic changes in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs marked by oscillating humid and arid periods. We present here a whole genome analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and high-resolution molecular analysis of nonrecombining Y-chromosomal (NRY) gene pools of a demographically small but autochthonous population from the Egyptian Western Desert oasis el-Hayez. Notwithstanding signs of expected genetic drift, we still found clear genetic evidence of a strong Near Eastern input that can be dated into the Neolithic. This is revealed by high frequencies and high internal variability of several mtDNA lineages from haplogroup T. The whole genome sequencing strategy and molecular dating allowed us to detect the accumulation of local mtDNA diversity to 5,138 ± 3,633 YBP. Similarly, theY-chromosome gene pool reveals high frequencies of the Near Eastern J1 and the North African E1b1b1b lineages, both generally known to have expanded within North Africa during the Neolithic. These results provide another piece of evidence of the relatively young population history of North Africa.

Spotted on Dienekes, I’ll dig up the full text to add to my Egyptian DNA page later. I’d debate that the J1 was all historic though, bearing in mind the Capsian J1 input into the area, but it is pretty far North. It’s a pretty small sample size (35) for the Y chr info.

Y chromosome J’s tangled past in Africa.

Just something I’ve done to help me get a better grip of the history of the Y chromosome’s presence in North Africa. Firstly, I need the J tree and it’s distribution from Cruciani 2004.

j-map

And some more detailed information on the distribution in the places relevant. Most important to this are J-m267 /J1, (typical of Arabs and common in East Africa) and J-m172/ J2, (which maps the expansion of the Neolithic into Europe and apparently into Pakistan (J2e) and North Africa).

J1 is typically seen as the marker for the Arab tribes expanding into North Africa, and this accounts for somewhat more than half of the J in North Africa. However, the J1 in East Africa is lacking a alteration in the historical-Arab specific Y chromosomes, and the latest paper I have seen dates the entry of this to Africa at the Iberomaurusian-Capsian- (pre neolithic) transition-or possibly a little later- which would require an entry date about  of about 12k ago.

Cruciani’s Bedouin sample was free of  J2 – as you can see from the maps there seems to be a break in it’s distribution pattern. A look at Italy and Greece (looking for other possible source of J possibly from the Romans and Greeks) showed it at levels low enough that for the Greek and Romans to have made any impact on the J Y chr of North Africa they would had to have left way more European specific haplotypes (the highest J observed in Italy is 29%, overall it’s a lot lower) and the same is true for other middle Eastern countries- to have added any extra J2 into North Africa a lot of other non-J Y chromosomes would have to have accompanied it. The North African Y chromosomes (Lower Egypt as the prime example)  just aren’t that varied and mainly show ‘ancient in Africa’ Eurasian and African specific Y chromosomes, with J making up most of the difference, which makes Europe and the recent near East as a source for the J2 unlikely. 

The distribution of J2 and J1 in North and East Africa, and whatever near Arabian populations I can find.

From Cruciani 2004

rel-j-facts

Egyptian

From Luis 2004 in Lower Egypt and Oman.

  • Egyptian Arabs… J1 20%   J2 12%
  • Oman Arabs…..    J1  38%   J2 10%

From Lucotte 2003

  • Lower Egypt…. J1  10.5%  J2  8.6%
  • Upper Egypt….  J1  3%        J2  4.5%

From Arredi 2004

  • Lower Egypt… J1  9%,  J2 9%
  • Upper Egypt     J1  21% J2 3.5%

I’m omitting the other studies I have on file as they don’t differentiate between the two, or lack clarity on which is which.

As the other studies are either a bit vague or very small I stick to these. The average amount of J for lower Egypt seems to be 25% (average of 5 studies) with about 10% being J2. Bearing in mind about 10% of the North African J1` is pre Neolithic, about 13.5% of the Egyptian Y chr are ‘Arab’ J1-possibly. J2 from the recent Arab expansion into North Africa probably does contribute to the J2 in NE Africa, but not in the main. The argument against this is that J2 is a minority in the Palestinian Arabs and Bedoiuns , and that to get J2 up to the levels you find in Egypt you’d need to have a lot more J1 and other Eurasian male ancestry- which would make the other African/ancient EurAfrican types way less more common. J2 is also common in Persia (who also invaded Egypt), but again it isn’t dominant and you would have to expect large amounts of other Y chromosomes to have accompanied it, which has not been observed (same argument against a European origin for Egyptian J2).

If the J2 had come in with the Arabs you’d expect a very obvious overweight of J1 in the ratio-as in the Sudan. It’s not even clear if the J1 there is all ‘Arab’ in origin, as the most of the J1 in East Africa is the pre Arabic J1- which makes Hassan’s 2008 choice of description as ‘Arabic’ for all the J1 in the Sudan a little confusing. As Cruciani wrote..

According to this interpretation, the first migration, probably in Neolithic times, brought J-M267 to Ethiopia

Although, I have to say; Hassan’s calling the Sudan Copts a living record of the Egyptians is strange considering how low they were on African Y chromosomes- particularly the Egyptian m78; and that 13 of 33 samples were J1.

While large scale historic movement of Arabic tribes into the Sudan is well documented, a lot of J1 is showing up in groups like the Nubians. When you bear in mind Arab culture is very patriarchal, I can’t understand how the non-Arab groups in the Sudan seem to have about the same amount of J1 as the Arab tribes in the Hassan study. Did more Arabs move into the Sudan than North Africa or is the recent and ancient J1 just getting lumped together in these studies?

I’m sure I’ll add to this post after my regulars have corrected/added whatever info they feel is necessary, but I think mainly but not entirely the J2 in North East Africa is a result of the Neolithic expansion, as it does seem to form a neat radial pattern from Turkey/Iran which is seems to track along with the R1b/p25, which also seems to be Turkish/Iranian.

Egyptian Y DNA and mt DNA reference

All the info I could find, collected in one place from assorted studies, mainly for my own ease of reference. I’ve kept putting this off, but finally here I am.

Egyptian  Y chromosomes

From Luis et al 2004.

y-chr-egypt

 Which places the African Y chromosomes (this is a lower Egyptian sample group) at about 42%. I was most interested by the expansion time for the Eurasian hg’s. Luis et al estimated an expansion time of 13.7–17.5 ky for the K2 lineages in Egypt, although it also states the K2 could have accompanied R1*-M173 back into Africa in the paleolithic along with the U and M1.

Like the R1*-M173 males, the M70 individuals could represent the relics of an early back migration to Africa from Asia, since these chromosomes are not associated with the G-M201, J-12f2, and R1-M173 derivatives, lineages that represent more-recent Eurasian genetic contributions.

It also describes J-12f2 as a marker of the Neolithic expansion. Although looking through the Sudanese Y chromosome study it Hassan puts it down as a recent Arab marker, although no expansion dates are mentioned in his paper, so I’m not sure on what basis that conclusion was drawn. The J is complicated to unravel. After a read of Cruciani 2004 it would seem about 90% of the  J-12f2 is Arabic in origin, but the M172 (J2) is rather older and probably Neolithic, although this doesn’t seem to agree with the age estimates for J-12f2 in this paper. It would seem that J has made several entrances to North Africa.

From Lucotte 2003, which needs this Keita paper to understand it. Haplotypes V, XI and IV are all Pn2 derived (E). VII and VIII are considered Arabic, so I’m assuming J1 is VIII and VII is J2.

simplified-lucotte-colour

The other study that deals with numbered and not named groups is by Franz et al. This puts Hg 1 (E) at 44% in Egypt (Cairo) and J  (Hg 9) at 35%, but unfortunately the rest of the information is a bit vague.

From Arredi 2004 which had a small study of upper and lower Egyptians as part of a North Africa overview.

Lower Egypt (0f 44 samples)

  • 1 A3b2*
  • 4 E3b3a
  • 12 E3b1
  • 2 E3b
  • 5 E3b2
  • 1 J2f1
  • 3 J2
  • 3 F
  • 4 J
  • 1 O
  • 1 K2
  • 4 R1
  • 1 R1a*
  • 2 P

Upper Egypt (of 29 samples)

  • 2 E3b3a
  • 5 E3b1
  • 2 E3b2
  • 1 I
  • 1 J2
  • 5 F
  • 6 J
  • 3 K2
  • 4 R1

Which places AfricanY DNA at 59%, and J at 18% in Lower Egypt, which is close to the Lucotte study. Upper Egypt has a much more diverse profile (oddly) with J at 20% and African Y chromsomes at a much lower 31% with the ‘old in Africa’ R1 and K making up 24% of this (pretty small) sample. Having seen this study I’ve been obliged to dig into the origin of F, and it does look like an ‘ancient in Africa’ Y chromosome (Karafet 2008) as it turns up in the Bantu in South Africa.

From Wood et al 2005,which is in here provisionally until I can check the paper personally as I’ve borrowed it from Maju’s comments.

3/92 = 3.3% A3b2-M13
2/92 = 2.2% B2a1a-M152
1/92 = 1.1% E-SRY4064(xE1a-M33, E2-M75, E1b1-P2)
1/92 = 1.1% E1a-M33
2/92 = 2.2% E1b1a-P1(xE1b1a7-M191)
1/92 = 1.1% E1b1a7-M191
8/92 = 8.7% E1b1b1-M35(xE1b1b1a-M78, E1b1b1b-M81)
28/92 = 30.4% E1b1b1a-M78
4/92 = 4.3% E1b1b1b-M81

2/92 = 2.2% F-P14(xG-M201, H1-M52, I-P19, J-12f2, K-M9)
2/92 = 2.2% G-M201
1/92 = 1.1% I-P19
21/92 = 22.8% J-12f2
1/92 = 1.1% K-M9(xL-M20, M1-M4, N1-LLY22g, O-M175, P-P27, T-M70)
7/92 = 7.6% T-M70
1/92 = 1.1% R-M207(xR1-M173)
2/92 = 2.2% R1-M173(xR1a1-SRY10831b, R1b1-P25)
4/92 = 4.3% R1b1-P25(xR1b1b2-M269)
1/92 = 1.1% R1b1b2-M269

T formerlyK2, I believe. Finally I find a source for the R1b in the Sudan and Cameroon.

Finally a study of J (Giacomo 2004) found the Egyptian sample to be 23.4% J and with more clarity this was..

  • 6 J1
  • 1 J2*
  • 2 J2
  • 1 J2f
  • 1 J2fl

I can’t help noticing there’s a fair amount of variance between these studies. But still the overall picture you get from Lower Egypt is about half native African, with most of the other Eurasian Hg’s dating back into prehistory.

Lower Egypt is about 55% African, mainly E3b, E and then A.

The next largest group is J, which is unfortunately a bit hard to separate out from Neolithic expansion, Capsian expansion, earlier historic population movements and the Arab expansion, but it averages out at 25% from all five studies, with possibly a third of it attributable to non historic expansions (J2, a little  Capsian J1).

After this comes the ‘old in Africa’ haplotypes, which make up the bulk of the remaining Y chromosomes about 19% (again averaging the studies, the HG vary in proportion but they came up near 19% overall).

Which takes Lower Egypt into the low 80% area for paternal ancestry traceable to the dynastic era and earlier. One would assume the Arab expansion didn’t bring anywhere near as much maternal DNA with it, although some tribes did settle in Egypt.

Egyptian mitochondrial DNA

From Berbers at Siwa Oasis (north west Egypt) and from Egyptians at Gurna (upper Egypt area) Detail here.

Siwa; Of 78 samples.

  • Eurasian  45
  • Asian (M) 1
  • North African (U6 and M1) 13
  • Sub Saharan 19

24% SSA, 75% Eurasian/N African.

Gurna

  • H 5 14.7
  • I 2 5.9
  • J 2 5.9
  • L1a 4 11.7
  • L1e 2 5.9
  • L2a 1 2.9
  • M1 6 17.6
  • N1b 3 8.8
  • T 2 5.9
  • U 3 8.8
  • U3 1 2.9
  • U4 2 5.9
  • L3*(a) 2 5.9
  • L3*(b) 1 2.9

29% SSA, 71% Eurasian/N African.

Surprisingly little difference between them. Lower Nubia came in at about 60% Eurasian an ancient mummy test– and while it’s correct that L3 also comes into the category marked out as Eurasian, it’s actually pretty close to the DNA study of modern Nubians. Unless the invading armies of history were all women there’s no plausible scenario to explain such a huge influx of Eurasian ancestry in such a relatively short space of time, as the Y chromosome presence of Arabs in the area just isn’t that massive in the modern lower Nubia area.

From Krings 1999. Which also shows that Egyptian maternal DNA is roughly 25% sub Saharan and 75% Eurasian. 

 

egyptmtdna

Ancient Egyptian DNA

To obtain the frequencies of these mtDNA types, amplification of the HVRI region and three RFLP markers was conducted. The authors succeeded in analysing RFLP markers in 34 samples and HVRI sequences in 18 of the samples. Both populations, ancient and contemporary, fit the north-south clinal distribution of “southern” and “northern” mtDNA types (Graver et al. 2001). However, significant differences were found between these populations. Based on an increased frequency of HpaI 3592 (+) haplotypes in the contemporary Dakhlehian population, the authors suggested that, since Roman times, gene flow from the Sub-Saharan region has affected gene frequencies of individuals from the oasis.

Which suggests the proportion of sub Saharan lineages is higher now than it once was at Dahkleh (SW Egypt). Bearing in mind that the Arab slave trade in African women seems to have accounted for about 10-15% of the maternal DNA in Arabia, this would seem the most likely cause in the increase of sub Saharan lineages. It would seem that post dynastic inflow maternal from sub Saharan African is passably close match to the paternal immigration from Arabs, and that these are probably the two most influential factors in immigration in post dynastic Egypt.

Not strictly speaking Egyptian but still relevant.

Copts from the Sudan, from Hassan 2008.

  • 13/33 J1
  • 5/33 B
  • 2/33 E3b
  • 5/33 E3b1
  • 2/33 J2
  • 1/33 K
  • 5/33 R1b

Nubians from the Sudan

  • 3/39 B
  • 3/39 E3b
  • 6/39 E3b1
  • 4/39 F
  • 2/49 I
  • 16/39 J1
  • 1/39 J2
  • 4/39 R1b

The high level of J1 is quite a surprise in both of these. Particlarly since Copts aren’t supposed to marry out. A y chr study of Cairo Copts could be informative as to just how much mixing there has been between the two groups there.

One thing that became apparent after reading through these DNA studies was that there was a somewhat higher level of African male ancestry in Egyptians than in a lot of the East African groups, and that the Horn Africans and Egyptians are really made up of very similar ancestries (West Asian, North East African and East African with a little Bantu here and there) but in varying ratios.

Reference list.

  1.  Luis 2004
  2.  Cruciani 2004
  3. Lucotte 2003
  4. Wood 2005
  5. Franz 2002
  6. Hassan 2008
  7. Krings 1999
  8. Arredi 2004
  9. Karafet 2008
  10. Giacomo 2004

Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations

Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations

Abstract
Background: The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000– 30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the Andaman Islands, is inconsistent with this scenario.

Results: In this study, we collected more than 5,000 male samples from 73 East Asian populations and reconstructed the phylogeography of the D-M174 lineage. Our results suggest that D-M174 represents an extremely ancient lineage of modern humans in East Asia, and a deep divergence was observed between northern and southern populations.

Conclusion: We proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages. The Neolithic expansion of Han culture and the last glacial maximum are likely the key factors leading to the current relic distribution of D-M174 in East Asia. The Tibetan and Japanese populations are the admixture of two ancient populations represented by two major East Asian specific Y chromosome lineages, the O and D haplogroups.

Another bit of light reading in my search forinfo on the DE Y chromosome. One DE sample is spotted in Tibet in this paper-the other sites being in West Africa. It puts D down as 60k  old, which (for once) seems a near realistic age for one of the older Y chromosome groups.  So much for Y chromosome Adam being 60k old.

YAP, signature of an African–Middle Eastern migration into northern India

YAP, signature of an African–Middle Eastern migration into northern India

Suraksha Agrawal1,*, Faisal Khan1, Atul Pandey1, Manorama Tripathi1 and Rene J. Herrera2

YAP, an Alu insertion polymorphism found on human Y-chromosome is present in two lineages worldwide, corresponding to M145/M203/SRY4064 (haplogroup E) and M145/M203/M174 (haplogroup D) polymorphisms respectively. First lineage belonging to haplogroup D is specific to Japan and other Southeast Asian populations, while haplogroup E is confined to Sub-Saharan African, Middle Eastern and Southern European populations. In the present study, 1021 Y-chromosomes belonging to nine different populations of North India were analysed for YAP insertion and four other single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to delineate the two lineages. Out of nine populations only one, i.e. Shiya Muslims revealed presence of YAP element at a frequency of 11%. Further analysis based on four additional  SNPs revealed that all the YAP+ve samples could be  categorized under African/Middle East-specific haplogroup E lineage. Interestingly, Sunni Muslims who historically have the same origin, i.e. from the Middle east showed a complete lack of YAP+ve lineage similar to other castes. We hypothesize that unlike Sunnis, Shiya Muslims due to their lesser number and less admixture with other caste groups of India, still carry the ancestral YAP+ve lineage, which in all probabilities is one of the founder haplogroups. All Middle Eastern populations show the presence of this lineage in almost similar frequency. Our study shows the presence of YAP+ve lineage in North Indian populations, reflecting an African/Middle Eastern migration into North India

This week’s reading is into Y chromosome DE, so I’ m chasing down papers that can help me figure out the earliest out of Africa Y chromosome movements. It’s not looking like DE is East African in origin, although I think North Africa is possible given the distribtion of DE, E and D. I’m starting to suspect if the OOA populaiton movement was one swift sudden expansion. Did it stall for a while In NE Africa? I’m no longer buying the Gate of Tears as an OOA exit. Looking at other later population movements the Horn doesn’t seem to play any part in the movements from Eurasia and Africa until about 10k ago.