Human Neanderthals.

Neanderthal child from Gibraltar.
Often portrayed as club wielding brutes, and the blame lies squarely on the head of older archaeologists for this. However, more and more evidence has accumulated to disprove this perception.Symbolic art. Ochre is a common find at Neanderthal burials, and some have grave goods like lumps of jasper, tusks, mammoth tusks, burnt animal bones, and tools in with the body, indicating a possible belief in the after life. There’ are several extremely ancient Neanderthal art objects from Europe. An ochred mammoth tooth plaque ( 50,000-year-old, Tata, Hungary), and a carved ox rib (Pech de l’aze, 300,000 years BP).

“One assemblage in France, dated between 39,000 and 34,000 years ago, has bone and shell
pendants, carved teeth and beads, as well as finely worked tools like the Cro-Magnons used. But the only bones found with this technology are Neanderthal.” Karen Wright, “Neanderthals Like Us,” Discover, March 2002, p.

“Pieces of red ochre, fossil skulls, and curiously shaped stones have also been found in the caves of the late Neanderthal. This tendency to collect curios marks the first beginning of an
artistic sense.” ~ Andre Leroi Gourhan, The Hunters of Prehistory, transl. Claire Jacobson, (New York: Atheneum, 1989), p. 53-54

“The diversity in the treatment of the dead would appear upon examination in the burial place of Regourdou (Dordogne)where a young adult male was found at one end of a stone-lined pit, with what is thought to be carefully arranged bones of a brown bear at the other; or of the Shanidar Cave in Iraq, where the body of one of the nine Neandertals discovered was supposedly buried within a pit lined with pine boughs and covered with flowers, according to the interpretation provided by pollen analysis.” ~ Michael Barbaza, “From the Middle Paleolithic to the Epipaleolithic in the Old World,” in Jean Guilaine, Prehistory, (New York: Facts on File, 1991), p. 59-60

“Most important, the very fact that so many Neandertal skeletons had turned up over the years indicated that they had been buried intentionally. At Le Moustier in southern France, a
young man’s body was found sprinkled with red ochre and buried in a flexed position, as if in sleep. His head rested on a pillow of flints, and burned wild cattle bones were scattered about as if in offering.” ~ James Shreeve, The Neandertal Enigma, (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1995), p. 53

Music. I think it looks just like a flute, and so do the majority of the people that examined it. It’s been worked out that there were four holes, the end two are only partially visible, and the placing seems to correlated with a diatonic musical scale. It’s been estimated the flute would have been about 37cm long intact. It’s from the Divje Babe I cave in northwestern Slovenia, between 43,000 and 82,000 years old. Older than the oldest known modern human instrument in Henan, China.

Flute and beads.

Medicine. Some skulls had been trepanned (drilled), probably to relieve pressure from a head injury. The patients lived long enough for the injuries to heal. Elderly and injured people were cared for, as remains showing severe arthritis were found, and someone that ill couldn’t have hunted for himself. One individual had a badly damaged toothless jaw, and would had to have been fed a near pureed diet for about six months before he could chew anything. 170,000 and 190,000 years old, France.

Mining. There’s a Neanderthal chert mine in Bulgaria, over 40,000 years old, tying with the Lions cave haematite mine in Swazi for the position of oldest known mine.

Another, slightly racist, inaccuracy in the way they are depicted is with dark skin and big thick lips. for a start, lips like that wouldn’t do well in a freezing winter, and you’d expect the males to have thick beards to protect their faces from the cold. It’s been shown that they had a mutation on the MCR1 gene that would have made them light skinned and haired, probably ginger haired. just like modern Europeans, although that particular gene doesn’t match the current known gene for red hair. They would have had long hair too, to keep their necks warm. I’m thinking they probably looked a bit like the Icelandic strong men you see.

An example of how the same Neanderthal was reconstucted by different museums.

14 responses to “Human Neanderthals.

  1. Good points and a nicely organized page.

    When I was living in Europe, in Milan, I read and re-read The Clan of the Cave Bear several times (and once in Italian).

    There seemed to be all this hostility to Neanderthal genes living on in modern Europeans, and, then, suddenly it was announced that unless 25% of a person’s genes were Neanderthal, there was no way to say you had Neanderthal genes.

    The whole idea was bogus. A prejudiced. How could the people I saw daily on the streets of Milan not have had some genes other than Cro-Magnon with the sloped foreheads I saw, and the prominence on the frontalis bone?

    Roy

  2. i have been a certainquestionabout neanderthals. i have learned that there was a tremendous volcanic eruption , mount toba, about 60,000 years ago. that is when the human population dwindled to a few thousands. i wonder how were the neanderthals affected by this eruption? if it decimated the human population so much, what about the neanderthals? they were in europe for 200,00- 300,000 years. wouldn’t they hve been affected? or were they so adapted to the cold climate, that if the eruption made the earth cool, they were uniquely fit for that climate and the change was not that great? when the eruption occurred, was the human population postulated to be throughout the world, save for the americas, or were they perhaps, in one main area? if they were throughout the world, would that account for the great differences between the races< i.e. caucasoid, negroid, mongoloid features came about due to the small numbers and imbreeding so that genetic differences were so apparent? please help me with answeres.

    thank you.

    a student of human history.

    mary

  3. The Neanderthal gene pool does how some signs of having been through a bottleneck at some point, so Toba probably did affect them a bit.

    There’s some decent evidence humans were in China by the time of the Toba explosion, so it probably did do something to speed up racial differentiation. However, Mongoloid people don’t appear in Asia until about 7,000 years ago, they are the youngest of the human family.So Toba didn’t have anything to do with them.

    There’s a Stephen Oppenheimier interview around here somewhere on that very subject.

  4. Maybe I’m incorrect here(I’m only 12 years old) but… Neanderthal mock up pictures sure look a lot like Africans, Aborigines, and Native Peoples….. Could it be that those indigenous peoples are closer relatives to our Darwinian ancestors???

  5. Interesting page and interesting views on the possibility of the Neanderthal genes existing in the present day population. I agree with that view and I am inclined to beleive that they exist in every ethnic group.

    In respose to young hitlers post above I would like to ask him this…..

    First please have a look at the profile of the neanderthal man on this web site

    http://www.erichufschmid.net/Neanderthals/Blame-the-Neanderthals.html

    Notice the slanted forehead with large brows (which is a significant feature of the neanderthal skull)?

    Then have a look at the profile of Adolf Hitler on the same website. Notice the similarities…(slanting forehead with large brows)?

    So young hitler, based on your racist views you sound like a fan of Adolf Hitler….but can’t you see Adolf Hitler certainly resembles a neanderthal???

  6. …khavceh/qafzeh cave, israel, 100k bc,
    71 pieces ochre/red hematite, a calendric
    number that matches the 71 drawings of
    felines/ocelome(N)=birthing animal
    found on walls of chauvet pont d’arc
    cave, france. 72, the number of times
    260day birthing calendar revolves in
    a 52yr solar period of 360days, leap
    year and the phoenix subtraction of
    a day every 130yrs not known yet.
    why 71? it’s a burial site, like killed
    pots, something has to be left out for
    the offering to pass over the river
    and into the 9 vados/crossings of
    mictlan. with leap year the number
    would be 73. why ochre? red is fire:
    t/l/red/t/l=tletl(N)=firegod, whose
    locus/tloc(N)=location symbolically=
    the sun. life itself is fire, tlauiz/tlauilli(N)=
    the torch/uiuil/vivir(sp)/lavi, lavil(mayan)=
    now/la vie(Fr). the goddess of the 260day
    birthing calnedar =tlatla tzol teotl, cave
    venus and flame/tlatla hole/tzol deity/teotl,
    who invented fire drill, the promethean gift
    to us from neander, and went on to become
    the regent of the book of souls/tonalamatl(N),
    her animal, the ocelotl/ocelome/(oc(elo(hi)m=
    elohim(Hebrew)=god. the tonalamatl is
    presently in mexico and is a venus/uentli(N)=
    offering/wind calendar under the tutelage of
    the proto-christ, quetzalcoatl, the master
    craftsman, who arrived here 3309bc, the
    oldest mayan date, the 5th sun, nahui ollin.

  7. …and added to the torch tlauiz/tlauilli(N) wordstring
    is, tlauitl(N)=ochre/ocre(sp). to(r)ch=toca(N)=
    our/to-ca/being. och(r)e/oc(r)e, from, celia/
    oceli(N)=blossom, revive(which was the wish when ochre put on the dead, the red torch of
    the afterlife).

  8. …and added to the torch string is the etymology of, to(r)ch=toc/ch=toca(N)= t0-(our being)-ca.
    in 5k nauatl, toca=to sow seed, which life does.

  9. …(h)it l/tler/ltl. if one takes, it to be itoa(N)=
    talk, and clearly, ler= t/ler/l/tl=tletl(N)=
    t/l/red/t/l=the firegod, the fiery speaker,
    then we see (h)i(s)tol/ry, which roots in
    tlatolli/itoa(N)=talk, fulfilling itself in hitler’s
    name, which he lived up to as a fiery speaker,
    who left his country and other parts of the
    world in ashes. and as to ashes/nextli(N)/
    ceniza(sp), from the verb, neci/onez(N)=to appear, to show the nose.
    in spanish we have him as, necio(sp)=ignorant, stupid, foolish,
    idiotic, imprudent, injudicious.
    or as we also
    say in spanish: no se estudia para pendejo/
    one doesn’t study to be a fool. yet fools will
    continue to be believed for they are the clowns,
    dogs, and twin brothers of christ in the earliest
    venus myths. as eveningstar, they lead the sun
    and his train at half-light through hell. clowns
    take themselves very seriously, by that you will
    know them and their followers also.
    so if you are young, don’t take yourself too
    seriously, let yourself grow to see what you’ll
    be, for serious is from, swar(OE/OHG), which
    yes=(s)war, and also forms the word, barbarian,
    and who wants to be a barbarian, except in
    the movies, and even then, the scripts are
    not so hot/ h/th/totonia(N)=boiling.

  10. …would there be neander mines in the altai,
    that seems to be where turkish gold=altin
    comes from, and, for the basques, iron=
    altzairu, perhaps mining is what went on there
    about 42k bc, it’s difficult to believe that
    nomatka(N) deer peoples had a deer
    convention there,
    but the k haplo gets started in the vicinity, mining would require slavery and small
    people also, hmmm zabag(prester john)=
    zapa ca(N)=dwarf being.

  11. carlos lascoutx

    …aren’t the hohle fels and gneissenklosterle
    cave flutes something? 40k/35k bc, 10k
    before neander/neandre packed it in and
    headed to the gravettian boneyard of kostenkij
    to hunt ivory iueli/powerful ollin pantli
    oliphant the elephant. the griffon buzz
    flute has 4 light lines near each hole,
    that would be, 4=nahui=naua(N)=
    to dance giving hands(and feet)=
    a reel(E)rheol(OE)teotl, so the
    teotl’s begin, firedrill with 2 sticks
    of wood began the tree(E)treow(OE)teotl,
    culminating in the druids/ d/t(r)o uitl(N)=
    our woodys/witu(OHG)=(cua)uitl(N)=tree,
    and language tla(c)uage tlaca daka danka
    da(n)ce=nauatl. the building blocks of
    mono-culture for eurasia, bear and deer
    redemption for sin rites, the bear for
    solstice and fear of time/cauitl/gravity,
    and the deer for ce uen-tli seven service
    te uen-tli deven divine. it’s still with us
    today, as neander/neandra is, of course,
    check out michael flately and feet of flame
    on you tube, those are deer dancers.

  12. …tzaatan/mazatlan, deer cult starts altai/altia(N), from mazyes berber to masard(E) to
    ma(n)za(na)(sp)=apple/city block, to
    the numidian berber west/east peoples=
    masaesyli and massylii, to the medghassen
    tomb that is a yu(r)t/yuhti(N)=from the beginning, there are still red deer/mazatl(N)
    in the atlas mts, hmmm, med/meth/metl=
    drinking, gha/ka/ca(N)=being, -ssen/ce(N),
    medghassen=center of being drunk(pun),
    ah, more,
    maza=myaz(rus)=meat(E)/matr(ON)/
    maz(OHG)/matam=mat(OSl)/mats(Goth)/
    matiz(CGer)= mat(r)iz(sp)=womb, hmmm,
    well, get out the bagpipes/gaita=ecatl itoa=
    ehecatl/hecate talks, we’re deer peoples/
    pipiltin, tzaatan duhka/toca(N)=sow/breed,
    reindeer=first horse=uma(J)=horse, making
    the altai japanese deer tribe also, and near
    mongolia, hmmm. gher/ger(mong)=
    gh/g/cel/r, aha, cel/celtin(N)=cell/cella(Lat)/
    cellar(E), still a religious connote, ocelotl(N)
    takes us to the cave tlatla, and the etruscan:
    ati/atl, cathe/caO/chaos/ecatl,
    luthe/luO/-lotl(N), (o)cel/celOim=
    elohim(Hebrew/god)/(o)celome(N/pl).
    everybody’s deer/mamaça(N/pl)/mammal.

  13. Pingback: Neanderthal Man, Pre Split? - Page 9 - Christian Forums

  14. A totally unqualified comment on the reason for burial. It is generally assumed that the burial of the dead indicates a belief in an ‘after life’, which, I think, requires a quantum leap in logic. Could not the ‘after life’ be just as well accessed from above the ground, or perhaps, even better still, from a high position like a hill top or the top of a tall tree etc. I think that burial was more to do with flesh preservation. If a large slaughtered beast provided more meat than could be consumed in one or two sittings there would be a need to protect the left over meat from decomposition or insect infestation for future consumption, so they buried it in a shallow hole in the cave or dwelling place, somewhere near to hand and near to the fireplace. Given that Neanderthals suffered regular brutal injuries and, no doubt, unconsciousness associated with those injuries, perhaps the line between death and unconsciousness was often blurred, as the unconscious would sometimes wake up after susutaining their knock out injuries. If the tribe or family group had to move on to follow the prey, perhaps they buried the unconcious/dead to protect the body from decomposition and insect infestation in the anticipation of his or her awakening, to find their personal objects and hunting gear with them in their shallow temporary grave. The notion of ‘after life’ is probably a much later development and is possibly more closely related to morality. Thoughts?

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